Leukemia cells are abnormal cells that cannot do what normal blood cells do. They cannot help the body fight infections. For this reason, people with leukemia often get infections and have fevers, which are common symptoms of leukemia.
Also, people with leukemia often have less than the normal amount of healthy red blood cells and platelets. As a result, there are not enough red blood cells to carry oxygen through the body. With this condition, called anemia, patients may look pale and feel weak and tired. When there are not enough platelets, patients bleed and bruise easily.
Like all blood cells, leukemia cells travel through the body. Depending on the number of abnormal cells and where these cells collect, patients with leukemia may have a number of leukemia symptoms.
Acute leukemia symptoms appear and get worse quickly. People with this disease go to their doctor because they feel sick. Chronic leukemia symptoms may not appear for a long time; when leukemia symptoms do appear, they generally are mild at first and get worse gradually. Doctors often detect chronic leukemia during a routine checkup--before there are any symptoms.
These are some of the common symptoms of leukemia:
- Fever, chills, and other flu-like symptoms;
- Weakness and fatigue;
- Frequent infections;
- Loss of appetite and/or weight;
- Swollen or tender lymph nodes, liver, or spleen;
- Easy bleeding or bruising;
- Tiny red spots (called petechiae) under the skin;
- Swollen or bleeding gums;
- Sweating, especially at night; and/or
- Bone or joint pain.
In acute leukemia, the abnormal cells may collect in the brain or spinal cord (also called the central nervous system or CNS). The result may be headaches, vomiting, confusion, loss of muscle control, and seizures. Leukemia cells also can collect in the testicles and cause swelling. Also, some patients develop sores in the eyes or on the skin. Leukemia also can affect the digestive tract, kidneys, lungs, or other parts of the body.
In chronic leukemia, the abnormal blood cells may gradually collect in various parts of the body. Chronic leukemia may affect the skin, central nervous system, digestive tract, kidneys, and testicles.