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Calypso 4D® Localization System™ is an electromagnetic tracking device that can be implanted in a tumor to track its exact location in time and space, improving the precision of targeted radiation therapy.

Cancer is a diverse group of illnesses, characterized by the rapid reproduction of abnormal cells, which invade into normal tissue.

Carcinoma, the most common type of cancer, is a tumor arising from cells that cover the skin or line the internal surfaces of the body.

Catheter is a long, flexible tube that is inserted into the body to deliver or remove fluids or medication.

Chemopreventives are drugs or therapies taken after treatment to prevent a secondary cancer or other serious complication.

Chemotherapy is a conventional medical treatment using drugs that are effective at killing cells that reproduce quickly, including cancer cells.

Chemotherapy drugs may be prescribed individually or in combination with other chemotherapy agents or with other conventional treatments, such as radiation.

Chiropractic is a therapy that seeks to restore balance and decrease pain through manipulation and realignment of the spine.

Chemotherapy sensitivity testing is performed on tumor samples to help determine which drugs can most effectively treat the cancer. This can limit your exposure to potentially toxic agents.

Clinical trial is a testing process to study the safety, effectiveness, and dosage of a new treatment. New treatments must pass three phases of clinical trials to gain FDA approval. A fourth phase explores additional uses, benefits, and side effects after a treatment has been approved.

Trials may be randomized, singleblind, or doubleblind. In a randomized trial, participants are randomly assigned the new therapy being tested or the standard therapy, which is always the best currently available. In a singleblind trial, either the person administering the trials or the participant is unaware which medication he or she is taking. In a doubleblind trial, neither knows which medication the participant is receiving.

COBRA refers to health benefit legislation that was passed as part of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986. It provides eligible employees, former employes, retirees, spouses, former spouses, and dependent children the right to pay for continuing insurance at group rates for up to 18 months after losing coverage because of a qualifying event, such as termination of employment.

Co-insurance refers to the portion of a medical claim that you're obligated to pay, not including any deductible or copayment for which you're also responsible. For instance, a fee-forservice plan may pay 70% of the “reasonable and customary” cost of a covered service, which may be less than the actual cost. Your co-insurance is the balance of the bill.

Cold therapy, also called cryotherapy, is the application of low or very low temperatures to achieve a variety of therapeutic results, such as to reduce cellular metabolism, decrease swelling, relieve pain, and destroy diseased or abnormal cells.

Combination treatment or multimodality treatment employs two or more conventional therapies used together to treat cancer. For instance, you may receive chemotherapy and radiation simultaneously or take a combination of different chemotherapy agents.

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the extremely diverse group of treatments currently outside the scope of conventional medicine, including naturopathic medicine, nutritional therapy, and mind-body medicine. A therapy is considered complementary when it's used together with conventional treatment but alternative when it's used as a substitute for conventional therapy. Using CAM therapies as a substitute for conventional medicine is almost never a recommended approach for cancer treatment. Conventional therapy is a cancer treatment that is widely used and has been proven effective based on extensive scientific testing and research. Conventional therapies, such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, are administered by medical doctors (MDs) or allied health professionals, such as registered nurses (RNs).

Conventional therapy is a cancer treatment that is widely used and has been proven effective based on extensive scientific testing and research. Conventional therapies, such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, are administered by medical doctors (MDs) or allied health professionals, such as registered nurses (RNs).

Comprehensive Health Insurance covers a significant portion of approved medical costs, including hospital stays, office visits, diagnostic tests, and prescription drugs. The two main types are fee-for-service plans, which pay a percentage of costs, or managed care plans, including preferred provider organizations (PPOs), health maintenance organizations (HMOs), exclusive provider organizations (EPOs), or point-of-service plans (POSs). Managed care plans cover costs for approved services minus a per-visit charge, provided you use their network of providers.

Copayment, sometimes called a copay, is a fixed payment, required by your health insurance provider for covered medical services, office visits, and prescriptions. Preferred provider organizations (PPOs) and other types of managed care plans typically require a copay, although annual medical exams, mammograms, and certain tests may be exempt from the copay.

CT (computed tomography) scan, also called a CAT scan, is created by a type of X-ray imaging machine that rotates around the body to take a large volume of two-dimensional images. Using digital processing, the data from these X-rays is combined to create detailed, three-dimensional crosssectional pictures of the interior of the body.

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